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From Debito's doctoral research:

Embedded Racism: Japan's Visible Minorities and Racial Discrimination

  • Embedded Racism: Japan's Visible Minorities and Racial Discrimination
  • (Lexington Books, Rowman & Littlefield HB 2015, PB 2016)

    Click on book cover for reviews, previews, and 30% discount direct from publisher. Available in hardcover, paperback, and Kindle eBook on

  • Book IN APPROPRIATE: A novel of culture, kidnapping, and revenge in modern Japan
  • Aug 24, 2006 Kyodo: “Ex-deputy of Tokyo Gov. Ishihara cries foul over ‘safe town’ campaign”

    Posted by Dr. ARUDOU, Debito on September 10th, 2006

    You may have seen on the news a new slew of programs on “foreigner crime”. It’s periodical–the National Police Agency spoon feeding the media every six months or so with new “foreigner crime” statistics, and special shows doubling as public-service announcements to appraise the public on how to avoid hordes of foreign criminals.

    Some historical examples of how the NPA has finagled statistics and manufactured crime waves at

    This time around, however, there’s been a snag–in that “Chinese Criminal DNA” proponent Tokyo Governor Ishihara’s former deputy chief has even come forward to call all the grandstanding an exaggeration.


    Ex-deputy of Tokyo Gov. Ishihara cries foul over ‘safe town’ campaign
    By Kakumi Kobayashi
    (Original link unavailable, apologies)

    TOKYO, Aug. 24 Kyodo – A former deputy chief of Tokyo Gov. Shintaro
    Ishihara’s task force on public safety is questioning some of the projects
    the metropolitan government has been promoting to that end.

    Hiroshi Kubo, who released a book titled ”Is Public Safety Really
    Deteriorating?” in June, said such measures could make people excessively
    wary, encourage prejudice against foreigners and benefit those in authority
    like the police. The Japanese-language book is titled ”Chian wa Hontouni
    Akkashiteirunoka” in Japanese.

    Some analysts say these concerns are entirely reasonable and have
    urged authorities to work harder to get rid of factors threatening public
    order, such as the widening income disparity, instead of simply telling
    people to brace themselves for possible crimes.

    Kubo, 59, was a senior bureaucrat in the Tokyo government. He led
    various crime prevention projects as a division chief in charge of public
    safety in the governor’s headquarters from August 2003 to March 2005, when
    he quit the municipality.

    Kubo said he felt ”embarrassed” when he involved himself in or led
    projects he said were aimed at prompting people to think the community was
    becoming more and more dangerous and to rely on the authorities, especially
    the police, to deal with the situation.

    The ”safe town” campaign helps boost various businesses related to
    crime prevention and create new entities and government affiliations.

    ”It means police officers and police bureaucrats can get more
    ‘amakudari’ posts,” Kubo said, referring to the Japanese business practice
    whereby current and retired bureaucrats land jobs in entities the
    government oversees or is closely related to.

    He said he wrote the book hoping it would cause people to have second
    thoughts about what the authorities try to promote ”in a more level-headed

    Ensuring public safety was a key pledge Ishihara made before he was
    reelected for a fresh four-year term as Tokyo governor in April 2003.

    The Tokyo government boosted its budget for crime prevention projects
    nearly 30-fold to 8.7 billion yen in the fiscal year which began in April

    The money financed projects such as those aimed at watching
    non-Japanese more closely and installing security cameras in public spaces.

    The local government encourages people to form patrol teams to find
    ”suspicious persons” in the neighborhood, buy goods to protect children
    from possible attackers and receive crime alerts that local authorities
    send to individuals’ cell phones.

    A 2004 government survey indicated 87 percent of Japanese felt public
    safety had deteriorated in the past decade. Behind the concern were reports
    of a spate of illegal acts committed by youths and foreigners who
    overstayed their visas, the poll suggested.

    Analysts say people have become much more wary since the school
    rampage in an elementary school in Osaka Prefecture in 2001 when a
    knife-wielding man entered the school premises and randomly killed eight
    children in front of their friends and teachers in broad daylight.

    Kubo also questioned the rhetoric Japanese authorities indulge in when
    warning people against crimes committed by non-Japanese.

    An annual report by the National Police Agency in fiscal 2005 said the
    police in 2004 cracked down on 21,842 foreign visitors to Japan over
    alleged illicit acts, up 9.2 percent from a year earlier, in 47,128 cases,
    up 16 percent.

    The total number of foreigners who entered Japan in the year also rose
    18 percent to 6.757 million.

    Kubo indicated it is obvious that the ratio of people breaking the law
    in any given group increases as the size of that group grows. The figures
    in the police report do not mean that non-Japanese are in general more
    likely to commit crimes compared with Japanese, he said.

    ”But the authorities tried to highlight only one side of what such
    figures suggest,” Kubo said. ”I’m not saying such crimes are not
    increasing…But it is wrong to easily say people in this category are good
    and those in that category are bad.”

    Criminologist Koichi Hamai doubts that people’s concerns about
    suburban crimes really originate from their own experiences.

    A recent survey by a team headed by the professor at Ryukoku
    University’s Graduate School of Law suggested over 90 percent of people
    polled said they feel crimes have increased in the past two years

    But when asked if they feel similarly about their own neighborhood,
    the ratio of people saying so sank to 27 percent, while 64 percent said

    The 2004 government survey also indicated 84 percent of people became
    interested in public safety because ”TV and newspapers often cover” the
    topic, far outnumbering the second most common answer — that the issue has
    become a topic of conversation with relatives and friends — at 30 percent.

    Hamai urged the government to boost measures to help people who once
    committed offenses but are trying to return to society as part of efforts
    to prevent crimes.

    Much research has indicated that although Japan’s economy is showing
    signs of recovery, the gap in people’s incomes and wealth has widened and a
    belief that only the strong survive has spread under Prime Minister
    Junichiro Koizumi, who took office in 2001.

    Hamai said, for example, that many youths have more difficulties
    landing jobs after leaving reformatory institutions than in the past.

    ”It leads to an increase in repeat offenders…That’s a sign of
    danger. Inaction by the government could really cause public safety to
    deteriorate,” he said.

    Sociologist Kazuya Serizawa said a change in public reactions to
    heinous crimes targeting children, especially after the 2001 school
    incident, suggests many Japanese communities have become more guarded than
    in the past.

    ”In the past, people discussed what was behind the emergence of such
    a cruel culprit or said ‘We may have to review the problems in our
    community’ even though they were shocked,” the tutor at Kyoto University
    of Art and Design said.

    ”But recently, people immediately talk about how they can kick
    suspicious people out of the community…It seems difficult to stop this
    trend,” he said.


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